Today there are many diets and trends in weight loss, many of which are not really nutritionally sound. It is a good idea to be familiar with the current trends in dieting and nutrition, in order to be able to meet customer’s requirements at all times.
- ATKINS DIET
Logic: This diet focuses on the restriction of the intake of carbohydrates, and concentrating on the intake of proteins. The theory is that when the body has no carbohydrates to burn, it switches to a process called lipolysis, which burns fats instead of sugars. Nutritional supplements and exercise are considered an integral part of the diet.
The Way It Works: There are 4 phases in the diet:
a) Induction phase – this is the most difficult phase where carbohydrate intake is limited to 20g per day. Meat, cheese, cream, salad, and veg is allowed; no caffeine or alcohol. This phase produces significant weight loss.
b) Ongoing weight loss – carbohydrates are increased to 5g per day each week, and this phase is maintained until the dieter is within 4.5kg of their goal weight.
c) Pre-maintenance – carbohydrate is increased again, in order to determine how much can be eaten per day without weight gain.
d) Lifetime maintenance – the habits from the previous 3 phases are continued, with an emphasis on whole, unprocessed foods.
Criticism : this diet rejects the traditional food pyramid, and is criticized for being unhealthy.
Symptoms such as diarrhoea, general weakness, rashes and muscle cramps have been noted, as well as bad breathe and fatigue. Various doctors have publicly stated that a high-protein, low carbohydrate diet can cause heart disease.
• All fish, fowl, shellfish, meat and eggs
• Firm or soft full-fat cheese 90-110g daily
• Salad vegetables, like alfalfa, celery, lettuce, radish; 230-340g per day
• Other vegetables like asparagus, cauliflower, onion, pumpkin, spinach; 140- 200g per day (if salad veg does not exceed 230g)
• Sour cream and cream; 2-3 tbsp per day
• Spices to taste, though none containing sugar
• Herbs, oil and white vinegar All vegetable oils
• Skin from meat and fowl , Soda water
• Lime or lemon juice, Artificial sweeteners
• Half avocado per day, 10-20 olives per day
• Decaffeinated coffee or tea
FOODS NOT ALLOWED
• No alcohol of any form
• Sugar (including honey and syrup)
• Milk and yoghurt
• Fruit and fruit juice
• Flour products
• Grains and cereals
• Beans and legumes
• Starchy veg: potatoes, yams, parsnips, beets, carrots, corn, peas
• Sweet condiments (chutney, tomato sauce, balsamic vinegar)
• French and Thousand Island dressing
• Cottage cheese and other fresh cheese
2. THE HAY DIET
Logic: A completely natural whole food diet with at least 50% fresh fruit, veg and salad. Food is
combined – protein and acid foods are never eaten with carbohydrates. Proteins, starches and
fats are eaten in small quantities, and only wholegrain starches. Four hours should pass between eating meals of different food groups.
The Way It Works: By eating foods that naturally complement each other when it comes to digestion, the body can process food more efficiently and utilise all of the nutrients. Bloating, acid over-production and allergens are prevented.
Criticism: It is quite difficult to say goodbye to traditional combinations like hamburgers, fish and chips, cheese sandwiches, etc. which are widely liked and available.
• All meats, Poultry, Fish
• Cheese, yoghurt
• Milk (including soya), though should not be eaten meat, rather fruit)
• Apples, apricots, berries, pears, pineapples, prune
• Cherries, currants, citrus, guava, kiwi, lychee, mango, melon, nectarine, passion fruit,
• Lentils, soya beans, kidney
• Butter beans, chick peas
• Red and white wine, cider
• All nuts excepting peanuts
• All green and root vegetables exempting potatoes and artichokes
• Egg yolks
• Olive oil
• Wholegrain wheat, barley, corn, oats, millet, rice
• Potatoes, sweet potatoes, artichokes, pumpkin
• Bananas, dates, figs, raisins, sweet grapes
3. The X-Diet
Logic: The idea is to increase the amount of carbohydrates we eat, whilst lowering blood sugar levels and insulin, and to eliminate as much fat from the diet as possible. The theory is that your metabolism speeds up, making it less likely for you to put on weight.
The Basics of the Diet:
• Cut out all fats: including the ones hidden in ready-made sauces, chips, etc.
• Cook fat free: use dry frying and alternative cooking methods, with no fat
• Read the labels: even low-fat, slimmer’s, diet or light labels can contain lots of fat
• Remember the golden three gram rule: only foods containing less than 3g are acceptable; be careful of % of fat (not the same)
• Eat as much non-fatty fish, shellfish as you like
• Eat breast fillet of chicken: skin, fat and fatty meat is not permitted
• Eat as many “polish” foods as you can: these foods include all fruits, salads and vegetables (with the exception of avocados, olives, coconuts, nuts and seeds)
• Eat the “special seven” vegetables every day: butternut, pumpkin, spinach, broccoli, carrots, beetroot and red cabbage; at least a cup a day
• Eat plenty of carbohydrates: this can be double your normal intake when on the X-Diet
• Eat high GI carbohydrates to build muscle and speed metabolism: high GI foods are those which quickly dissolve into their component sugars, like bread, potatoes, sugar, honey and cereals
• Eat low GI foods to burn fat: low GI foods dissolve slowly in the gut, releasing sugar into the bloodstream gradually, like beans, sweet corn, white rice, pasta, soya, oats, lentils, barley
• Drink plenty of water
• Take essential fatty acids: in supplement form (Omega 6 and Omega 3 oils)
• Eat oat bran: this lowers the GI score of almost anything you eat, i.e. they slow the release of the sugars into the bloodstream. It also reduces cholesterol.
• Eat as often as you can: eating small meals more often is more beneficial to your metabolic rate, by “keeping it busy”
• Exercise regularly: weight bearing exercise will help to build muscle mass and mean that you see results on this diet faster
• Forbid “diet” food: tasteless and bland food will do nothing to help you on this diet. Make sure meals are full of flavour, and that you savour each bite.
• Layer your food: that is, to have a starter, main and dessert type food at every meal. This ensures you get a good variety of foods, and that you never feel deprived.
• Follow the “rule of seven”: to get proper nutrition, try to eat at least seven different foods at each meal.
Criticism: No diet should be entirely fat free, because the body needs fat to absorb nutrients, protect organs, provide warmth, etc. It seems silly to cut fat out of the diet entirely, and then take
supplements to fill the gaps. A balanced diet seems a more logical route.
4. EAT RIGHT DIET
Logic: Your blood type reflects your body’s chemistry, and determines that way you absorb nutrients. Each blood type differs in the way it handles different foods, and this diet tells you what foods to combine and what to avoid.
The Way It Works: Your blood type is determined in a simple test, and a diet prescribed of foods and eating habits to adopt and avoid.
Criticism: The personality types and eating habits of a certain blood type cannot possibly encompass all people in that group. Every person is an individual with a unique body, and the generalisation of the grouping seems too narrow.
Type A: should be a vegetarian; have a sensitive digestive tract, and a tolerant immune system; should meditate to deal with stress; is predisposed to cancer and heart disease.
HIGHLY BENEFICIAL FOODS
• Soya milk
• Olive oil
• Feta cheese
• Canola oil
• Green beans
• White wine
FOODS TO AVOID
• Sesame oil
• Cashew nuts
• Chick peas
Type B: should eat dairy products, have moderate exercise; are less prone to slow-growing viruses that attack the nervous system; are better equipped to deal with creativity.
5. WEIGHT WATCHERS
Logic: to learn how to make wise choices, eat healthy and balance food, and exercise, without having to ban any particular food from the diet.
The Way It Works: Foods are all assigned a point value. The dieter is allocated a number of points per day, based on their current weight and height, and can eat foods totaling that allocation. Obviously, it pays to eat wholesome foods, and to cut back on refined sugars and fats,but any foods can be eaten. Members attend weekly meetings to be weighed and receive tips on new recipes, etc.
Criticism: this is a life plan – there is no reverting back to old eating habits if you want to maintain your goal weight. It is not seen as a quick weight loss scheme, rather a lifestyle of healthy eating.
Members have to pay weekly membership fees until they reach a predetermined goal weight, and have to attend a minimum number of meetings.
Examples of Point Allocation:
• 1 slice bread = 1 point
• 1 apple = ½ point
• 1 square chocolate = 1 point
• 100ml low fat milk = 1 point
• 1 medium potato = 3 points
• ¾ glass wine = 3 points
• 1 can beer = 3 points
• 1 matchbox size cheese (cheddar) = 3 points
6. WEIGH LESS
Logic: A perfectly balanced diet including foods from all the food groups, ensuring nutritional
needs, but in strictly controlled quantities.
The Way It Works: Most fat is cut out of the diet in the initial phases. Food is weighed, to
determine the portion sizes, the allowed weights per day based on the dieter’s lifestyle.
Criticism: There is no swapping of food from different groups – all foods need to be consumed
each day as per the daily eating plan. Food portions have to be physically weighed, which can be time-consuming and off-putting. It is very difficult to integrate this diet into normal lifestyles (eating out, etc.)
FOOD GROUPS SERVINGS PER DAY SERVING SIZE
e.g. potato, rice, pasta 1 60g
Breads 4 60g
Proteins, including cheese 3 50g
Vegetable 3 100g
Fruit 3 100g
Fat, e.g. vegetable or olive oil, fat in low-fat dressings,
mayonnaise 3 2-3 tsp
Dairy, e.g. milk, yoghurt 2 ½ cup
All foods consumed need to be low fat or fat-free, and low salt.
Plenty of water needs to be drunk throughout the day.
Source : Hospitality Trainers, 2015