Healthy eating, combined with regular physical activity and weight control, is important to
manage diabetes. People with diabetes should eat mainly high fibre carbohydrate foods
such as wholegrain breads and cereals and vegetables and fruit. They should also reduce their intake of fat, especially saturated fat. Limiting the serving size of your meals is often required to maintain a healthy body weight.
Main meal example
· One cup of cooked rice or pasta or one medium potato.
· Lots of other vegetables.
· 90 to 120 grams of lean meat, skinless poultry, seafood; or half a cup of legumes (such
as beans or lentils).
· One fruit or one small tub of yoghurt.
· Water, tea or coffee.
Cholesterol is a type of fat that is part of all animal cells. It is essential for many of the body’s metabolic processes, including hormone and bile production, and to help the body use vitamin D. Too much cholesterol in your diet can lead to heart disease.
Two types of cholesterol
· Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol – called the ‘bad’ cholesterol because it
goes into the bloodstream and clogs up your arteries.
· High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol – called the ‘good’ cholesterol because it
helps to take the ‘bad’ cholesterol out of the bloodstream.
Effects of high cholesterol levels
The liver is the main processing centre for cholesterol. When we eat animal fats, the liver
returns the cholesterol it can’t use to our bloodstream. When there is too much cholesterol
circulating in our bloodstream, it can build up into fatty deposits. These deposits cause the arteries to narrow and can eventually block the arteries completely, leading to heart disease and stroke.
How to avoid saturated fats
The best way to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol in your diet is to limit foods high in
saturated fats. Try to avoid:
· Fatty meats
· Full fat dairy products
· Processed meats like salami and sausages
· Snack foods like chips
· Most takeaway foods, especially deep fried foods
· Cakes, biscuits and pastries.
Foods that may lower cholesterol levels
A few studies have suggested that eating oats and legumes may lower LDL cholesterol.
Food components like saponins (found in chickpeas, alfalfa sprouts and other foods) and
sulphur compounds (like allicin – found in garlic and onions) may also have a positive effect
on cholesterol levels
GLUTEN FREE DIET
The small intestine of a person with coeliac disease is sensitive to gluten, which is the
protein component of grains like wheat, rye, barley, triticale and oats. Even tiny amounts of gluten can cause harm. There is no cure, but the condition can be managed with strict
lifelong adherence to a gluten free diet. The challenge for many people newly diagnosed
with coeliac disease is to find tasty substitutes for all the foods they can no longer include in their diet. The list of forbidden foods may seem very long: wheat-based breakfast cereals, muesli, couscous, commercially prepared cakes and pastries, biscuits and meat pies, just to name a few. However, a person with coeliac disease can still have a nutritious, balanced diet consisting of a wide range of foods by experimenting a little with alternative grains.
Gluten free cereal products
Naturally gluten free cereal products that can be enjoyed include:
Arrowroot , Buckwheat , Corn flour, Cornmeal, Corn tortillas, Lentil flour, Malt-free rice and corn breakfast cereals, Millet meal, most poppadums, Polenta, Potato flour, Rice (any kind), Rice bran, Most rice crackers, Rice flour, Rice vermicelli, Sago, Soya flour , Soy-based lecithin, Taco shells, Tapioca.
PREGNANCY AND DIET
Good nutrition during pregnancy will help to keep a developing baby and its mother healthy.
The need for certain nutrients such as calcium, iron and folate is increased at this time but only a small amount of extra energy (kilojoules) is needed. Women should be encouraged to eat to their appetite and monitor their weight. A normal weight gain is around 10-13kg for women who are a healthy pre-conception weight.
Healthy foods for pregnant women
It is important to choose a wide variety of foods to ensure the nutritional needs of both
mother and baby are met. Try to eat:
· Lots of fruit and vegetables, wholegrain breads and cereals
· Moderate amounts of low fat dairy foods and lean meats
· Small amounts of foods high in fat, sugar and salt
· Lean meat, chicken and fish
· Dried beans and lentils
· Nuts and seeds
· Low fat milk, cheese and yoghurt
· Green leafy vegetables.
Fat is deposited on our bodies when the energy (kilojoules) we consume from food and drink is greater than the energy we use up in activities and at rest. Small imbalances over long periods of time can cause you to become overweight or obese. Obesity increases the risk of many chronic and potentially lethal diseases. Most of these diseases are preventable with attention to lifestyle factors including proper nutrition and regular exercise. Example of these diseases:
· Insulin resistance
· High blood pressure
· Cardiovascular disease
· Particular cancers such as breast, endometrial and colon· Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus)
· Gall bladder disease
· Polycystic ovarian syndrome
· Musculoskeletal problems such as osteoarthritis and back pain
· Stress incontinence
· Sleep apnoea.